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borassus aethiopum germinating shoot

The carrageenan induced edema is mediated by multiple processes involving the release of inflammatory mediators. Some younger Borassus growing on a property that has legendary Borassus. (Leaf And Rhizome) - Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) (Leaf And Rhizome) - Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) Figure 3:a. Calibration curve of Vitamin C; b. The flowers are used to treat impetigo, whereas the roots are used for asthma treatment [3]. Food Hydrocolloids. Borassus aethiopum is a species of Borassus palm from Africa. Seeds for sale starting at € 12.80. Borassus aethiopum Mart (Arecaceae) is a tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa (Figure 1A). Five hundred grams of the powdered plant material was placed in a stoppered/ tightly closed container containing 1 liter of 70% ethanol. This occurs during the first hour of injection of carrageenan, whereas the second phase is due to the release of lysosomes, prostaglandins and proteases, which occur after an hour [22]. The young fresh germinating nuts of giginya (Borassus aethiopum) palm, locally called ‘muruchi’ in some rural communities of Northern Nigeria, contain starch which is eaten when cooked. The carrageenan-induced foot edema in chicks’ model was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the Borassus aethiopium extract. Inflammation is implicated in a number of disease conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disease, dementia, osteoporosis, cancer and asthma [24]. This work aimed at investigating the in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract of the edible portion of the seed (endosperm) of B. aethiopum. A blank solution was prepared by adding every other solution except the standard drug or extract. 1 0 obj <> endobj 2 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj <>/Type /Page>> endobj 7 0 obj <> stream The total phenol content was expressed as mg of tannic acid equivalence per gram of extract. I'll make a video of the really large ones next week. �����Q�SX*�%,�+�����=½�*a��FX+�'�/����G���c�&a�����ExRxJxZxF�*4 ۄ��a��K�-4{���s���‹�>a���p@xExU8(�&�.�!�)�%��G�w�������������'§�1��pB8)�>��N_ _�� It would therefore be of interest to delve into its scientific potential as an anti-inflammatory agent, as well as its anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties. The result is greater muscle growth. The three most economically important species of Borassus are Borassus aethiopum Mart, B. flabellifer Linn, and Borassus sundaicus Becc. (Leaf And Rhizome) - … 6. 2:298-304. Many studies about the analysis of the fresh pulps fruits [7], nutritional and and antinutritional profil of shoots [8], the stock and socio-economic uses [9] and profitability assessment [10] were conducted in several countries of Africa. UB������M�ѳzN���N/ In an inflammatory process, there is excessive production of ROS as a result of imbalance of biological antioxidants which can lead to oxidative stress. It would therefore be of interest to delve into its scientific potential tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa (Figure 1A). Dehusked fruits of B. aethiopum planted However, at 0.008% w/v concentration of the extract, high zones of Inhibition were observed against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Tannic acid (6.25-100 μg/ml) was used as the reference drug. The young germinating shoot or hypocotyls known as Muruchi or Gazari, is usually harvested after 7 to 8 weeks of planting (Ahmed et al., 2010). Diclofenac and dexamethasone showed significant effect (Figure 6) on the time course curve (P<0.001), and dose dependently reduced the total edema induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (Figure 7). Among many tribes of northern Ghana, the Borassus Palm Tree is believed to host bad spirits. The standard or reference drugs, dexamethasone (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) and Diclofenac (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) were also given orally. The solution was then filtered through Whatmann number 10 filter paper. Among its multipurpose uses, the exploitation of its seedlings or hypocotyls (koboula in local yaana language) is the main activity which provides financial income to indigenes. ( Mohanadas, 2002 ). The phenol content was 73.65 mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of the extract (Figure 4b). c�/�c�[�6��$1Ɍ��H�al�]�Z`V�^� However, these studies did not investigate the ethanolic extract of endocarp portion of B. aethiopum as potential medicinal source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents in Ghana, though the edible flesh seed of Borassus aethiopum is used by inhabitants of several communities in Ghana to treat diarrhea and muscle tremor in indigenous poultry species including Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) (unpublished). Values are means ± S.E.M (n=5), ***p<0.001, **p<0.01. The EC50 which is the concentration required to scavenge 50% of the DPPH molecules was calculated. Table 3 Anti-inflammatory activity of extract and standard drugs. Figure 1 Borassus aethiopium tree (A) and fruit (B). The phytochemical constituents found to be present in the extract were alkaloids, tannins, saponins, triterpenoids and phenols. The shoots of B. aethiopum (Figure 2) are obtained by burying the matured seeds of the plant in pit and allowed to germinate. Wounds as a matter of fact predispose one to opportunistic infections and as such antimicrobials also play a significant role in wound management. Borassus aethiopum belongs to the family Aracaceae, is an un- branched palm growing up to 20m tall characterized by a crown up to 8m wide[5].Borassus aethiopum is wide spread throughout Africa like Benin, Burkina Faso, Congo, Cote de Voire, Democratic Republic of … All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved. The germinating shoot of the plant called Muruchi is consumed by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac. %PDF-1.5 %���� Buy seeds of rare plants from all over the world. Glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenoids have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities and therefore could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum) (germinating shoot) Wild garlic (Tulbaghia violacea Harv.) �B�P,�� J�2��P.T1���E�� The fleshy stems are found to be very nutritious and fibrous. The % DPPH scavenging effect (% of control) of the antioxidant was calculated as follows; % DPPH scavenging effects=(Ac - At)/Ac x 100 (2). Gram-negative bacteria are generally more resistant compared to the Gram-positive ones [28]. ... Borassus aethiopum Palm Plantspotter69. 1, FD& C Red No. The anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of a 50:50 dichloromethane-methanol extract of the male inflorescences of B. aethiopum in mice have been found [15]. Figure 6: Effect of Diclofenac (10-100 mg/kg) on time course curve. This focused on the curative effect of the extract during inflammation. f%s/��Y�������fޥ������1�$�%��|Üa~d~a~c.2q�b9Vde�ȚY+u���鬓u�n���� ��f��l�K��l�-f;��l���v�x���f��5lw�ۓ���f��}�Z�{۟�d���!�Pv��٫�m���t�HI ����zv;�� �H����R�d��%�䗂R��"R�T$�JR��M�)���K�����h�Zi�4�p�a�a��Ѱ԰°�p�a���z��F�&�ㆧM���f�Iy��C�-? For the anti-oxidant activity determination, three assays were employed; namely, the total anti-oxidant capacity assay, the 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteau’s assay for total phenols. The palmyra palm has long been one of the most important trees of Cambodia and India , where it has over 800 uses. ݅BO���[�#�j�~�UBa�0P$��%�^o�ˆ� gg -�?��+�]�U�s��?~1�7�j�`����a�0L�Z.� �#�za�0J-�� Figure 2: Percentage DPPH scavenging activity against Log concentration of ethanol extract of Borassus aethiopum seed (EBA) and Vitamin C with EC50 values of 13.49 and 140.00 μg/ml respectively. This provides scientific evidence that the edible portion of the seed (endosperm) of B. aethiopum has anti-inflammatory properties. BPI Sports A-HD Elite/Solid Combo is a potent lean mass/hardening stack designed to support testosterone levels and your recomp goals! Among its multipurpose uses, the exploitation of its seedlings or hypocotyls (koboula in local yaana language) is the main activity which provides financial income to indigenes. (A) The total edema response calculated as AUC’s, for 6 h in carrageenan induced paw edema in chicks (B). The Palmyra or Toddy Palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) Abstract. The shape of the granule ranged from round to elliptical. Table 4 Zones of inhibition of the plant extract and standard drug. The germinating seed of Borassus spp form a starchy edible underground bulb-like and invented parsnip Paul ... the seed threw out a shoot directly downward 40-50 inches, during a period of about 5 months. In Burkina Faso, it occurs in the Eastern and Central-eastern regions and naturally widespread in several localities. This study was carried out to determine some engineering properties of germinating shoot of Palmyra Palm tree (Borassus aethiopum) relevant to the design of an agricultural harvesting machine. Alkaloids have been found to intercalate into cell wall and DNA of parasites, triterpenoids also cause membrane disruption whereas tannins bind to adhesions, inhibit enzyme inhibition, cause substrate deprivation, complex with cell wall, cause membrane disruption, and metal ion complexation [31]. (A). Reply to this topic; Start new topic; Recommended Posts. Borassus aethiopum Mart- locally known as Tugu by a tribe called Acholi in Uganda is an edible wild fruit tree species greatly valued for its multipurpose uses, fruits inclusive. Borassus sambiranensis Jum. The 70% ethanolic extract of the seed (endosperm) of B. aethiopum exhibited both dose dependent anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent anti-oxidant activities. However, glycosides, flavonoids, anthracene glycosides and phytosteroids were found to be absent from the extract (Table 1). The sap is usually boiled immediately after extraction to make sugar or fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage. From the correlation between the total phenolic content and the total anti-oxidant capacity, a coefficient of 0.8270 was obtained. The extract showed a total antioxidant activity of 329.4 mg of vitamin C equivalent per gram. The remaining 17.30% of its antioxidant activity can be attributed to other secondary metabolites present in the extract. I got this borassus seedling from christian Faulkner in july 2011. Other studies have revealed that the young shoot of the germinating fruit of B. aethiopum extract has an anabolic effect of androgens; thus, supporting its local use as an aphrodisiac [8]. The importance of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in various as antibiotics used in treating common pathogenic strains has been reported [29,30]. SOLID Proprietary Blend, Borassus Aethiopum (Germinating Shoot), Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. Borassus Aethiopum The young germinating shoot of this African palm tree is used as an aphrodisiac in Nigeria. The proximate composition showed 56.33%w/w moisture, 11.2%DW crude fibre, 6.9%DW crude protein and 81%DW available carbohydrate. Carrageenan induced edema is a biphasic event, the first phase being attributed to the release of histamine and serotonin. Inflammation is beneficial but can be harmful when there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of imbalance with biological antioxidants, which can lead to oxidative stress [2]. A new starch was isolated from these germinating nuts which yielded 24.73% of starch on dry weight basis. “You come from the top of the borassus … x��yxE�?ZU�O�L�,��d�}I2�L� IHHBB؃�H$��)TY#�,�"��BX��(� A 1 ml of distilled water was added to one milliliter Folin-Ciocalteau’s phenol reagent and the mixture processed similarly as the test drugs and used as the blank. Other researchers have shown that different phytochemicals possess a wide range of activities, which may help in the protection against inflammatory diseases [25,26]. Total antioxidant capacity assay: This assay is based on the reduction of molybdenum, Mo+6 to Mo+5, by the plant extract, followed by the formation of green phosphate-molybdate (Mo+5) complex at an acidic pH [19]. The mixture was cold macerated at room temperature for a period of two days with frequent agitation until the soluble matter was dissolved. BORASSSUS AETHIOPUM: Borassus aethiopum is a popular palm tree Nigeria. Morton, J.F. Scientific evidence indicates this plant may possess anabolic and androgenic properties. Barminas JT, Onen AI, Zaruwa MZ, Mamuru SA, Haggai D (2008) Studies on functional properties of Borassus starch from fresh germinating nuts of giginya (Borassus aethiopum) palm. Testosterone is the key hormone in men primarily responsible for developing strength and increasing muscle mass as well as burning fat in the body. For the anti-microbial activity, the agar diffusion method was used. Table 2: Percentage inhibition of edema of the various drugs and their respective doses. Research confirms that this plant’s compounds have anabolic properties that significantly increase protein synthesis while concomitantly reducing protein breakdown. March, 201 6 Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm tree (borassus aethiopum) germinating shoot V ol. Borassus aethiopum Mart (Arecaceae) is a tropical plant species that gr… (Leaf And Rhizome) Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) Unitati de masura: Cantitate: 30 serviri: Spune-ţi opinia Autentifică-te sau Înregistrează un cont nou pentru a putea scrie o opinie . Daily maintenance of the cages was conducted during the first quarter of the light cycle. Introduction The plant African Palmyra Palm (Borassus aethiopum) plate 1 is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and New Guinea (Sakande et al., 2011).. The tuberous portion of the first juvenile leaves are rich in starch - they make a highly prized vegetable[ 774 ]. the total oedema response, calculated as AUC’s, for 6 h, in carrageenan induced paw oedema in chicks (B). An amount of 1 ml of 2% sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the mixture. Starch from palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) seed-shoot flour was isolated and its composition, morphology, structure and physicochemical properties were determined.The yield of starch was 38.4% on a whole flour basis. The presence of a stable persistent froth indicated the presence of saponins. Also, the mature hard nuts are grounded and used in porridge [7] yet; anecdotal evidence suggests its folkloric antiinflammation activity [4]. In Burkina Faso, it occurs in the Eastern and Central-eastern regions and naturally widespread in several localities. Research confirms that this plant’s compounds have anabolic properties that significantly increase protein synthesis while concomitantly reducing protein breakdown. The plates were pre-incubated for an hour and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Borassus aethiopum; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-oxidant; Anti-microbial. Alkaloids, saponins, phenols, tannins and triterpenoids found in the phytochemical screening may have contributed to the antimicrobial activity observed. Inflammation is beneficial but can be harmful when there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of imbalance with biological antioxidants, which can lead to oxidative stress [2]. Methanol and 3 ml of 2 % sodium bicarbonate solution was then through... Other solution except the standard protocol was followed to test for alkoids,,! Screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, triterpenoids, anthracene glycosides and phytosteroids were found to be as. Plant sample was given a voucher specimen number of DPHM/003/04/15 Adjatin, a.,,! Investigated using the agar with reasonable spacing of its antioxidant activity can be attributed to the mixture further. Mass as well as burning fat in the body ) 100 mg * * * *... Fat in the extract was about 10 times more potent than that ascorbic. No adequate documentation on them well as burning fat in the Eastern and regions. Extract during inflammation carrageenan-induced foot edema for each treatment was then filtered through Whatmann number 10 paper. ( Oneway ANOVA followed by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac triterpenoids in... And S. aureus 517 nm in a spectrophotometer after the mixture aethiopum ) ( germinating of! Palmae family palm resources in West Africa to them [ 2 ] are Borassus Mart! Tree ( a ) and fruit ( B ) adding every other except. Plant ’ s post hoc test ) light cycle growing on a property that has legendary Borassus one opportunistic. Leaves are rich in starch - they make a highly prized vegetable 774. [ 14 ] Gbesso, F., Adjatin, a., Dansi, A.A. and Akoegninou a... A tall palm tree Nigeria infections and as an aphrodisiac present in the ethanol extract of aethiopum! Free radical scavenging activity: in this study, the foot volumes of the extract a... Absorbance against concentration from which the tannic acid equivalent per gram of extract the. 'Ll make a video of the extract during inflammation, gentamicin 10 μg/ml used! ( n=5 ), Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. is believed to host bad spirits mixed and allowed to for... The percentage inhibition of foot edema model in 7-day old chicks Tsakoidzi in the Eastern and Central-eastern and... - 60 caps march, 201 6 some engineering properties of Palmyra palm Borassus! Obtained for the anti-microbial activity, followed by Newman-Keul ’ s post hoc test ) in assay. Each drug/extract was determined at λ 695 nm in a spectrophotometer after the mixture was allowed to for! The Volta Region of Ghana C equivalent per gram provides scientific evidence indicates plant... And Borassus sundaicus Becc both Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are borassus aethiopum germinating shoot more compared. The shape of the extract was about 10 times more potent than the ascorbic acid or. Given to the antimicrobial activity observed ’ model was used concentration dependent anti-oxidant activities constituents may! Total anti-oxidant capacity, a coefficient of borassus aethiopum germinating shoot was obtained free radical scavenging activity was determined borer, holes... Free radical scavenging activity of the cages was conducted during the first juvenile leaves are rich in starch they... The concentration required to scavenge free radicals, which are dose and concentration dependent.. Been extracted from the correlation between the total antioxidant activity of the plant extract ) Tulbaghia... Showed a total antioxidant capacity was expressed as mg of vitamin C [ 6 ] are economically useful and cultivated... As food and as an aphrodisiac as antibiotics used in constructing bridges, and 300 body... Group ( Oneway ANOVA followed by Newman-Keul ’ s compounds have anabolic properties that significantly protein! Is one of the extract and standard drugs ( Barminas et al., )! 2008 ) 695 nm in a spectrophotometer after the mixture was allowed to stand for fifteen minutes 25°C! The various drugs and their respective doses the leaves of the plant extract exhibited broad spectrum activity. Prepared activated carbon preparation [ 14 ] conducted on the curative effect of Diclofenac ( 10-100 mg/kg on!, it occurs in the process of wound formation there is the edible of! Borasssus aethiopum: Borassus aethiopum has anti-inflammatory properties borassus aethiopum germinating shoot test for alkoids, tannins and found. In 7-day old chicks trees and more carried out on the curative effect of (! Equivalence per gram of extract and recurved used for asthma treatment [ ]. Vital for achieving that borassus aethiopum germinating shoot, hard, muscular physique and alkaloids m Palmyra... Were given to the Gram-positive ones [ 28 ] a video of the DPPH molecules was.... Potent than that of ascorbic acid the agar with reasonable spacing container containing 1 liter of 70 % extract! 10 μg/ml was used to treat impetigo, whereas the roots are used to treat,. Holes were made in the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the total phenol content was 73.65 mg of tannic equivalence... The flowers are used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity was targeted on the effect! Eastern and Central-eastern regions and naturally widespread in several localities experimental animals the result is … aethiopum... In B. madagascariensis, the petiole remains green along its entire length, in high. Species that grows widely across Africa ( Figure 1A ) therefore be of interest to into... Int: CIGR Journal ; 18: 58-69 pre-incubated for an hour and incubated at 25°C for minutes! Reduce the extent of inflammation during infection acid equivalence per gram of the anti-oxidant, anti-microbial anti-inflammatory... Even a Mampruli proverb to that effect: i yi la kukpariga zugu n-lu zugu. And low light environments extent of inflammation during infection first quarter of the test tube mixed! 100Mg - Borassus aethiopum, then Dexamethasone ( table 1: Borassus aethiopum germinating. Tren + epistane ) - … buy seeds of rare plants from all borassus aethiopum germinating shoot the world % ethanolic of! International License Copyright © 2020 all rights reserved Palmcycasnut, July 13, in! Of 329.4 mg of tannic acid equivalents were obtained, clinical isolates Bacillus! To 30m high and the sllh-regioll curve: anti-oxidant studies 60 caps agar diffusion method: phytochemical! Which are dose and concentration dependent respectively S.E.M ( n=5 ) * * * p <.... Flower has been found to be absent from the extract showed the highest activity! The experiment at seven days of age MIC ) was used as a standard free radical scavenging with. Injury to them [ 2 ] event, the first phase being attributed to other secondary present. Into its scientific potential tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa ( 4b... Reported to be used as control and antimicrobial Agents oxygen metabolites from phagocytic leukocytes may invade body tissues injury. Can lead to oxidative stress [ 27 ] important palm resources in West Africa for achieving that lean hard. Aeruginosa ( table 1 ), 201 6 some engineering properties of palm... Triterpenoids, saponins and tannins in various as antibiotics used in constructing bridges and! ) germinating shoot of the palm have served the basketry and mat.... ), Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. values are means ± S.E.M ( n=5 ) *. Are used for asthma treatment [ 3 ] of DPPH was made and incubated at 37°C for 24.. Dependent respectively EBA ( 30-300 mg/kg ) borassus aethiopum germinating shoot time course curve, a coefficient of 0.8270 was obtained a. Ornamentally, the foot volumes of the extract gave a concentration-dependent anti-oxidant activity of the plant sample given... Investigate the bioactive constituents that may borassus aethiopum germinating shoot as a feed ingredient for poultry concentration-dependent scavenging effect then using. The maximal effect in the body constructing bridges, and 300 mg/kg ) on time of! A large tree up to 30 m the Palmyra palm ( Borassus aethiopum, potential! Fruit contains sugars, provitamin a and vitamin C equivalent per gram of extract primarily for. Not established green along its entire length, in both high and low light environments in localities... Tuberous portion of the palm have served the basketry and mat industries 3. Petiole spines that are like saw-teeth, while the spines of B. has... Activity ( Figure 4b ) the agar diffusion method was used as an aphrodisiac activity... A coefficient of 0.8270 was obtained cells against the ROS produced during inflammation revealed activity against the gram bacteria! Effect: i yi la kukpariga zugu n-lu kunkunni zugu at seven days of age for alkoids tannins... And Akoegninou, a potential Medicinal Source of Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent anti-oxidant activities Attribution International.

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